Thursday, January 23, 2020

Macbeth Essay -- essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To what extent is Macbeth responsible for his actions?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Whose Fault Is It?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the play Macbeth, Macbeth’s actions are cold blooded and are done out of ambition and greed. For example, he killed King Duncan because he wanted to be the king of Scotland. He also hired murderers to kill Banquo and his son Fleance because they stood in his way of becoming king. Only Macbeth was responsible for his deeds, however, the witches, and Lady Macbeth also played key roles in influencing Macbeth’s actions.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  During Macbeth’s first encounter with the three witches, he learns that he has been appointed Thane of Cawdor, and that he will be the king; but, he also knows that if he is to become the king, a few people will have to die. After thinking about it, he decides that if he is going to become the king he will let it happen naturally. His decision changes, however, once he talks to Lady Macbeth. When Lady Macbeth hears Macbeth’s story, she wants him to kill Duncan so that they can become king and queen. At first, he does not want to kill Duncan, but then Lady Macbeth questions his manhood â€Å"When you durst do it, then you were a man; / And, to be more than you were, you would / be so much more the man† (I, vii, 49-51). She tells Macbeth that she would kill her own child to have a chance like this â€Å" I have given suck, and know / how tender ‘tis to love the babe that milks me:...

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

“Houzit” Marketing management plan Essay

Marketing objectives The market for home-wares in Brisbane is estimated last year at $175 million per annum with an anticipated growth rate of the percent in the coming year. Here I outline the following marketing objectives: 12% market share (up from 11%) Increase in sales by 8.5% over last year’s result No expansion stores are planned during this phase of consolidation and on average the stores achieved $24,680 per week for the year. Marketing activities Here we present the marketing activities that show potential for the organization’s growth in seasonal demand that occurs during this period. Increased marketing – focus on magazine advertising and PR In-store promotions– in-store displays will feature advertising visuals and ink the featured products with other areas in Houzit’s assortment. Web based promotions- the company’s web page will also carry the advertising visuals on the home page and will use the PR copy in article marketing on popular article content sites. The webpage will be targeted towards the key words found in the PR article and featured in the advertising of ‘stylish bathroom’ and ‘exotic mirrors’. These keywords will also be secured via pay-per-click traffic directing. Focus in bathroom fittings and mirror categories with linkages to the other two categories of bedroom fittings and decorative items. Key driver in achieving the marketing objectives is through the opportunity of having advertising space together with a PR write up in one of the leading home-ware magazines and their website. For the next six months the marketing plan calls for increased marketing to match the growth in seasonal demand that occurs during this period. Integration of organizational activities Advertising visuals and links will be displayed throughout at Houzit’s assortment and web homepage. Company Web address line of ‘Find us at http://www.houzit.com’ will be displayed on all materials. PR copy- used in article marketing on popular article content sites. The webpage will be targeted towards the Key word throughout. These keywords will also be secured via pay-per-click traffic directing. Distribution and pricing Online retailing a new distributional channel- Company have decided to update the webpage so that the customers can order and pay online. The Price of imports will be monitored against competitors and exchange rate on daily basis because imports were usually an area of high margins for the company and any loss there could be a serious issue. KPIs Market share = store sales/total estimated market sales Marketing cost of customers acquisition = cost of marketing / Total new business acquired Delegation of roles and responsibilities Marketing manager – enjoy taking responsibility for the in-store promotions because it keeps me connected with key personnel and trend in merchandise category sales. Tony – he is a specialist search engine optimizer and webpage designer Marie – advertising /PR Lamberts consulting – market research and marketing audits Communication Strategies Marketing communications is a rather generic term for a very important function of marketing. Communicating and disseminating information has become increasingly important. While public relations are a form of marketing communications, the role encompasses much more, including content development, product positioning and brand messaging. Thus we will use the below methods to communicate effectively:- 1. Shared emails 2. Formal meetings 3. Informal meetings 4. Team visits – stores 5. Progress chart Assessment Task 2 – Case study analysis Staffing support plan Strategies: 1. Setting goals Will organise weekly meeting by providing to employees where can achieve greatest return that to work toward and has the potential to increase productivity in the workplace. 2. Providing Feedback We believe that consistent feedback from mentors and coaches not only helps improve employee performance, but it ensures employees are not caught off guard when disciplined for poor performance. 3. Celebrations and Rewards Celebrations and rewards will build respect for the mentor or coach and help employees see that the individual is not only there to criticize but also to share in employee success. 4. Collaboration Managers will provide for new employees to collaborate with as they begin working with a Houzit. I believe that managers help employees learn to navigate an organization and how to complete tasks effectively. Resources Marketing outcome model: ROI – Return on investment Feedback Providing the feedback using the Star model: An easy way to remember the elements of effective feedback is to use the acronym STAR. ST – Situation or Task. What was the problem, opportunity, challenge or task? A – Action. What was said or done to handle the situation or task? Remember to provide developmental feedback and areas for improvement. R – Result. What was the impact of the employee’s efforts, and how did their actions influence the end result? Here’s an example of using the STAR model to provide positive feedback. ST – â€Å"Thanks for completing the spreadsheet on resource allocation I requested.† A – â€Å"You provided all of the data I asked for and got it to me on time.† R – â€Å"I was able to bring the data to a  planning meeting with our director, where we used it to create a strong resource plan for next term.† Scenario 1 One-on-one coaching will include Role-play activities Testing and reviewing answers Meetings to encourage the employee to perform and homework in which answers are reviewed The manager provides the individualized coaching to her employee. May set up a time line with preset intervals to review progress Scenario 2 Performance measurement and Corrective actions such as: Ask the employee to rate themselves Provide a written performance review to the employee Make sure that can back up any positives and negatives with specific examples Conduct a review meeting within 48 hours of the written performance review Note and file any employee comments and then ensure that the final version goes on file. Customise the one-on-one coaching template of Houzit company’s requirements and hand to employees to complete prior to a performance review. Identifying weaknesses: To evaluate our employees’ weaknesses we will consider factors such as: Tardiness Communication problems Lack of enthusiasm or drive Poor comprehension of materials or program Difficulty getting along with others. We will work with each employee to come up with measurable goals for improvement. For example: devise a system to track each employee’s progress and check in regularly. If an employee has a problem with attendance or tardiness, for instance, create an attendance chart and offer positive reinforcement, such as praise or recognition for good attendance each week. For employees with technical problems or a lack of understanding, offer training on computer programs or systems. Other ways to track employees’ progress may include having employees keep track of their daily or weekly  sales numbers. For more subjective areas, such as people skills, consider holding office seminars on topics such as diversity, compromise or communication or paying for employees to attend training. Offer incentives for the training — such as lunch for all participants or a certificate. Assessment Task 3 – Marketing performance report Marketing objectives The estimate for home-wares is currently $199 mln p.a up from $175 mln This year’s predicted growth 10% and expecting to continue for the next 5 years Average weekly sale has grown $28,200 although expectation was 8.5% growth on $24,680 Market share targeted 12% Last 6 months marketing expenditure: Advertising- $250,000 PR- $30,000 In store promotion- $60,000 Internet marketing-$100,000 The cause of the profit increase was we have successfully implemented the new strategies by actively engaging to achieve the marketing objectives. There was a seasonal demand that occurred during the last year by giving growth in share from10-12%. Increase in share will be remained in next force able 5 years, which is giving more opportunity to Houzit stay in the market specifically continue to focusing on magazine advertising and PR, together with in store promotions. Also, we should invest more on web based promotions in the next marketing period. With a growing market we should maintain the market share to bring to the Houzit solid and controllable growth. Targets We should maintain our high performance as much as we can. There will be a large growing increase in interstate migration consequently the home-wares and the building activity for at least next five years. REFERENCES 1. Joshi, Rakesh Mohan, (2005) International Marketing, Oxford University Press, New Delhi and New York 2. Philip Kotler, Philip.; Kevin Lane Keller (2006). Marketing Management, 12th ed.:).Pearson Prentice Hall 3. Clancy, Kevin J.; Peter C. Kriegafsd (2000). Counter intuitive Marketing. The Free Press 4. Porter, Michael (1998). Competitive Strategy (revised ed.). The Free Press. 5. Kotler, Philip.; Kevin Lane Keller (2006). Marketing Management, 12th ed. Pearson Prentice Hall 6. Ries, Al; Jack Trout (2000). Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind (20th anniversary ed.) 7. Porter, Michael (1998). Competitive Advantage (revised ed.). The Free Press

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Job That I Love - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1660 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/04/26 Category Entertainment Essay Level High school Topics: Video Games Essay Did you like this example? I believe I have lived an interesting life. I have been adventurous and bold which has led me to amazing opportunities and life experiences. I also believe I have gone through most of my life feeling lost. Without a direction or purpose, I was constantly going in circles. With no direction, I was at a standstill. This led to me to allow my time to be taken up with distractions. One of those distractions being video games. I have played videos most of my life. It was something my older brother did. I played a lot but never excessively. I liked being outside and play sports while growing up. After high school, I usually only played during thunder and snow storms. I used to see how people became addicted to video games. I understood they were fun but couldnt understand that it was all they wanted to do. One day I came across a game that changed all that. The game was called Ark. The game was an open concept, where the players could used what the game offer and play it how the y wanted. I liked this because it allowed for a lot of creativity. There were many different servers available. A server or gaming server is where someone purchases a server to get the core game and edit the options as they see fit for how they want people playing. They can edit the map, the settings, the rules, etc. They also are in change of that server. They police the server the way they see fit, even in an abusive matter if they so choose. I first started playing on servers where it was player verse player. This was where teams or individuals would battle each other using the game mechanics. That was fun and really didnt take up too much of my time. After about half a year of playing the game casually, my team decided they wanted to go on a different kind of server where it would require a lot more time and effort to accomplish things, to make it a bit of a challenge. I wasnt willing to put in that kind of time, so I decline the offer, and off they went. I was about to quit playing the game out of boredom, when I came across a type of server I have never seen before. It was called an RP server or roleplay server. I had heard of roleplay games like dungeons and dragons and stuff like that, but I never heard them played in video games. Being intrigued I started watching videos on the internet. As geeky as it seemed, it was an interesting concept. Most games you play you must play the games characters and the games storyline. In a RP server you play your character and you play your storyline. Being a creative individual, I was eager to give it a shot. The server was customized and built to fit the theme of a medieval era. Three hundred people from around the world were playing on it. So, when you went into game you interacted with other people. There were no computer characters, it was all real people on the other side of the character you interacted with. The server had its economy created by the people running the server called admins. The server wa s played with seasons. This meant every six weeks; the map would wipe and there would be a fresh start. You could continue your story or start anew. Everything else in the game was determined by the players through roleplaying out events. These were rules, leaders, and scenarios that could occur. Now I was average when it came to playing the actual game. I started on the server trying to learn the rules and figure out how people play this style of game play. I just put in a few hours a day. My schedule at the time allowed for a lot of spare time. After getting the hang of the play style and diving into the concept I found that I enjoyed the game play. I realized by the end of my first season I was rich because how I played the economy. I didnt use the game mechanics, but I used people skills, real people skills to get rich. By interacting with other characters and providing them with services in game, I became a sort of entrepreneur. I went on next season doing the same thing. Th is time I played with a big group, where last time I played more on my own, so I could get the hang of things. In the game I was face with many scenarios that I applied to real life and allowed me to build myself. For instance, I was working a job that was not going well at the time. This job had given me the most opportunity and experience any job had ever given me. It was the most I had ever been payed. But it was going in a bad direction. It was taking advantage of me and asking of me task that were truly impossible to complete. I was scared to quit. I feared that I wouldnt be able to find as good if not better of a job as this one. With other real-life situations and this game, I was able to give my two weeks notice. My character in game wouldnt take crap, why should I. I went on playing the game. I got better with the concept of roleplay. Most people enjoyed my characters. This allowed me to attract skilled players and role-players to play in my group or for me to play in th eir group. This allowed me to pull off major storylines in game and acquire riches and other powerful items. Again, not being good at the game itself, but using people skills I thrived. Every season I came out rich. Every season I was some sort of ruler. I was even king once. On another character, I was a smaller ruler who owned the king. I made great strides in this false world. The problem was I had become addicted to the game. I would spend anywhere from 8 hours to sometimes 16 hours a day playing this game. I had signed up for summer classes to make my fall and spring semester schedule a bit liter. As the classes approached, I was telling myself I should quit and be done with the game. I should focus on school. I started my first class and instead of giving up the game, I gave up sleep. I went on playing. Being that successful in game and respected and loved, it was hard to give up. Through roleplay I created big adventures and storylines. Some of these led to a lot of action and wars. I was too far in. I couldnt be as effective in game because I, at the very least, made school the number one priority in my life. I was in a five-week class. Then what I would call a miracle happened. Due to the admin team, of the server, fighting and there being a lack of consideration from the admin team to the players on the server, the population started to drop big time. People left and banned together to create other servers. I quit the server because I was tired of the way the admin team was running the server and because the population drop made it less fun. Even though I had quit the server, I wasnt completely free yet. I was waiting to see which of the new servers was going to come out on top. I wanted to play on that one. As I was waiting I had this extra time I havent had in a while. I begin to enjoy not logging into a game daily. I began to realize that it became like a job to play the game in the manner I was playing. I was working hard to create these su ccesses in a world that didnt matter. It was nice not to deal with any petty drama or struggle of in game problems. I started to look at my current life. I wasnt as healthy as I could be. I was at a new job that I hated. Nothing in my real life was where I wanted it. I had spent so much time in game I forgot about real life. I created major successes in game but had not progressed in life at all. This bothered. I knew I was better than this. I knew that I knew better than to let a game take over my life, yet I had. Then I was hit with a thought. If I could be that successful in game just using people skills and creativity, why cant I be that successful in real life. It was at that moment I got to work. I worked on myself and my real life. Today, four months later, I have an amazing job that I love. I am the healthiest I have ever been, and I am the happiest I have ever been. Looking back, I dont know the exact number, but I was addict to this game for a year in a half. Most peopl e hear that and say imagine what you could have done if you didnt waste a year and a half. I think about it too. Oddly enough I am glad I did. If I didnt I wouldnt be the person I am today. I wouldnt be in the position I am today. I would be somewhere, but I would of taken a different road. It took playing this game to see what I was real made of and the skills I must apply to move forward in life. So, I dont see my addiction as a failure, I see it as a lesson and a road I had to take to get to where I am today. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Job That I Love" essay for you Create order

Monday, December 30, 2019

The Etiology Of Parental Psychiatric Conditions Of...

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize and analyze journal articles related to the etiology of parental psychiatric conditions of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and the development of psychiatric conditions after diagnosis; and how the two are interrelated and cyclical. Parents of children with ASD encounter a variety of unexpected- emotional, physiological, and financial challenges in their lifetime. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders often have â€Å"elevated levels of depressive symptoms and psychological distress† (Meltzer, 2010, p. 362) and are at â€Å"a heightened risk for mental health problems† (Ingersoll Hambrick, 2011 p. 337) not only compared to parents of neurotypical children; but also in contrast to parents with children with Down syndrome, an intellectual disability, fragile X syndrome, and development delay (Meltzer, 2010; Ingersoll Hambrick, 2011). Background Information The rate of autism spectrum disorders has risen exponentially in the past forty years from 1 in 10,000 in the 1970s, to 1 in 1,000 in 1995, to a staggering 1 in 68 today; (CDC.gov) which means many families are impacted and coping with this devastating disorder. (CITE) In 2013, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-V) combined four previously individual diagnoses that all had deficits in two primary areas: (1) â€Å"social communication and social interaction,† and (2) â€Å"restricted repetitive behaviors, interests, andShow MoreRelatedIs Autism a Primarily Genetic Disease?1448 Words   |  6 PagesI. Introduction: Neurological disorders are complex in nature and often the least understood. Given the recent boom in imaging technology and other diagnostic methods, it is now possible to see more clearly into the scope of neurological development and accurately determine the etiology of these diseases. One of such disorders is Autism; a multifactorial condition impairing normal brain development. It affects many aspects of development, including social behavior, cognitive ability and communicationRead MoreEtiological Theories Of Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay1964 Words   |  8 Pagesof Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Review of the Literature Nova Southeastern University Abstract Within the last twenty years, the amount of empirical research regarding the possible cause(s) and risk factors for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has increased (Lai et al., 2014). According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), ASD is currently identified in approximately 1 out of 68 children living in the United States, compared to 1 in 10,000 children in 1980Read MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder1278 Words   |  5 PagesStatistical evidences. ASD’s gender proportion suggests that the autism is sex-linked, and the statistical evidence convincingly shows that genetic factors are playing key role in the prevalence of ASD. To begin with, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published the relationship between the number of autistic boys and girls. The statistical evidence shows that boys are more inclined to become autistic than girls. CDC states that 1 in 42Read MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder ( Asd )1801 Words   |  8 PagesAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by qualitative impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted, repetitive behavior (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013), and is associated with impairments in executive functions. Autism Spectrum Disorder is also defined as a group of disorders that impair an individual’s ability to understand and engage in the give-and-take of social relationships. (Boyd, 2015) Autism is a well-knownRead MoreChildren Of A Foreign Country And Not Knowing The Language And The Customs2968 Words   |  12 Pagesindividuals with autism may encounter on a daily basis. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014), 1 in 68 children are identified with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. With the prevalence of these disorders being at an all time high, there is a pressing need for highly trained professionals who are concerned abo ut the well being of those who are affected. Overview Definition and Characteristics The American Psychiatric Association (2014) defines Autism Spectrum Disorder as â€Å"a rangeRead MoreDepth Look At Autism Spectrum Disorder3112 Words   |  13 Pagesat Autism Spectrum Disorder Leydi A. Zapata Columbia Basin College In Depth look at Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder, or ASD, is a complex developmental disorder which is usually diagnosed during the first 3 years of life. The disorder is characterized by severe difficulty or inability in communicating, socializing, forming relationships with others, and responding appropriately to the environment. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, orRead MoreThe Risk Factors And Assessment Of Asd Essay2034 Words   |  9 PagesIntroduction Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopment disorder in early childhood that causes difficulties for children and their families. ASD’s are a group of disorders characterized by core deficits in a person’s social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive or stereotypic behavior. The degree of impairment on a person with ASD can vary, but the impact on affected individuals and their families is universally life altering (Newschaffer et al, 2007). This paper will discussRead MoreUnderstanding the Puzzle Piece: Autism Spectrum Disorder Essays2264 Words   |  10 PagesUnderstanding the Puzzle Piece: Autism Spectrum Disorder When God created humanity, there was a fellowship that no other creation had with him. After the fall, however, sin damaged this fellowship, causing separation and marred the original bodies created by God. As a result, sin has ravaged humanity causing pain and suffering in a variety of areas particularly mental health. Even though sin was defeated at Calvary, all of creation longs for the day when it is completely obliterated at the DayRead MoreThe Developmental Period Of Toddlerhood3559 Words   |  15 Pages â€Æ' Introduction This paper will begin with examining the developmental period of toddlerhood (18 months through 3 years of age) for a young boy named Joey, age 2 and 1/2. It will then introduce the problem of Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) in this stage of development, and some possible interventions to address this problem. After discussing these topics, this paper will describe how to assess RAD in a Joey, and his family, and how to engage Joey and his parents, Dave and Lisa in an interventionRead MoreMedicare Policy Analysis447966 Words   |  1792 PagesRequiring the option of extension of dependent coverage for uninsured young adults. Limitations on preexisting condition exclusions in group health plans in advance of applicability of new prohibition of preexisting condition exclusions. Prohibiting acts of domestic violence from being treated as preexisting conditions. Ending health insurance denials and delays of necessary treatment for children with deformities. Elimination of lifetime limits. Prohibition against postretirement reductions of retiree

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Drug Trafficking And Its Effects On America - 1261 Words

The large country of Mexico is currently having a long and hard battle against the raging and harmful issues that threatens to destroy humanity. Drug trafficking has become the king of these issues, with the other issues slowly branching off as subjects to serve their king. Currently, Mexican drug cartels dominate the wholesale illicit drug market, earning $13.4 to $49.4 billion annually. Since this investment is extremely large, it has become an exhausting challenge to try to destroy the drug trafficking as it threatens to hurt innocents. As the danger of drugs drifts in the streets of Mexico, so does the dangers of violence, homicides, and kidnappings. Homicides are currently knocking on Mexico’s citizens’ doors, ready to take them. Forty to fifty percent of homicides in Mexico are currently due to drug violence. In September 2014, forty-three students protested against drugs and they were kidnapped, tortured, and murdered by a gang in Guerrero. The gang was working i n cahoots with the local police. The bodies were burned and disposed of in garbage dumps and in rivers. Only two of the forty-three bodies of have been identified. The other forty-one bodies were too badly damaged. Additionally in 2012, a massacre occurred in Tamaulipas. In an abandoned warehouse, 72 Central American Immigrants’ corpses were discovered.The government blamed the Zetas Cartel who were linked to another massacre of 193 immigrants in the past, but no one was charged for the massacre ofShow MoreRelatedDrug Trafficking And Its Effects On America1600 Words   |  7 Pages In a country of struggling economies, many have viewed the drug trade as one South American’ s most successful businesses. Latin America s drug trafficking industry has been depicted in United States popular culture through motion pictures such as Scarface and Traffic. The purpose of my research is to take away society’s perception of what Hollywood has depicted drug trade to be and bring out what narcotics trafficking really is, as well as trying to coincide with the motivations of those peopleRead MoreDrug Trafficking And Its Effects On America1137 Words   |  5 Pages Drug trafficking has turned into one of the important and complex world issue today. Drug trafficking is the act of selling producing and transporting drugs that are illegal this can be seen in small or large scale operations. Today s drug market is huge and most of the drug related business takes place mostly between Mexico and the U.S. This paper will explore how the Mexican cartels cause crime in order to gain money, induce fear upon the population, and gain power in Mexico. From the yearRead MoreDrug Trafficking And Its Effects On America964 Words   |  4 Pages In regard to Latin America, this area is a crucial geographical zone for drug trafficking and production. Due to the location, the drug trade has found its perfect home, vast mountains and forests enable huge farms to produce and ship drugs to any region they want. Whether it is Colombia, Peru or one of the many countries found to be in this vast collection of drug trafficking, it is apparent that they all share simil ar geographies that allow the trade to continue. As a result of this, countriesRead MoreThe Illegal Drug Business1361 Words   |  5 PagesThe Drug Business Paper Introduction The smuggling of drugs has been a part of the society for over a century in most parts of the world. This form of business has flourished mostly in the developed countries such as the United States of America, where the demand for drugs is high while there is no or very small production in the country. The production in the countries where drugs such as cocaine, heroin, cannabis, etc are supplied is banned mostly under the respective local laws, and thereforeRead MoreDrug Trafficking877 Words   |  4 PagesDrug Trafficking in the United States Americans like to hide thoughts of the bad in society, one of these thoughts often hid or forget about is drug trafficking. Drug trafficking effects everyone from the one-percent down to the people of poverty. Billions of dollars of drugs are bought and sold, with billions more being spent to fight the trafficking of illicit drugs in the United State. With all the money spent to prevent drug trafficking Americans need to understand the harmful effects. Drug TraffickingRead MoreDrug Trafficking1134 Words   |  5 PagesThe international drug trade from Latin American states is having an impact on a global scale. The trafficking of drugs along with corruptness and murder is an international conflict that is being fought daily. There are many aspects of the drug war from Mexico and other Latin American states which have effects on United States policy as well as policies from other countries that participate in the global suppression of illegal drugs. It can be hard to differentiate between conflict and issueRead MoreEssay on Mexican/Latin American â€Å"War† on Drugs and Trafficking1122 Words   |  5 PagesThe international drug trade from Latin American states is having an impact on a global scale. The trafficking of drugs along with corruptness and murder is an international conflict that is being fought daily. There are many aspects of the drug war from Mexico and other Latin American states which have effects on United States policy as well as policies from other countries that participate in the global suppression of illegal drugs. It can be hard to differentiate between conflict and issue inRead MoreIllicit Drug Trafficking : An Organized Crime1481 Words   |  6 Pagesthis paper was to gather research of the topic called illicit drug trafficking. It explores 10 online research articles and websites that relate to illicit drug trafficking. These articles however, vary in their research about the topic. It begins by stating how illicit drug trafficking is considered an organized crime. Two of the main drugs that are trafficked are cocaine and heroin. As a result of drug trafficking, the war on drugs has been a problem for many decades in different countries. Read Moreâ€Å"The War On Drugs Is A Big Fucking Lie†. In Recent History,1560 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"The war on drugs is a big fucking lie† In recent history, there has been much rhetoric surrounding the eradication of cross-border drug trafficking. The â€Å"war on drugs† was introduced in the 1970s by Nixon, who wanted to eliminate the drugs coming into the United States, since they were seen by him as a threat to our nation. Many laws have been enacted with the purpose keeping illicit drugs out of the United States, yet they do so through the use of nativist ideology, which upholds white supremacyRead MoreBudget And Policy Paper1597 Words   |  7 Pages War on Drugs Bridget Brown, Shaketra Jones, Matt Anderson, Jerry Carter, and Lisa Rivers CJA/464 Matthew Kite October 20, 2014 More than 45 years ago President Richard Nixon announced and declared the nation is at war, that war was the War on Drugs. Nancy Reagan campaigned heavily in the fight against drug use as well; her fight was that of teaching young children the slogan of â€Å"Just Say No†. The goals of the criminal justice system in the war on drugs have been

Friday, December 13, 2019

Bluesky Shopping Mall Free Essays

Analytical Report on Blue Sky Shopping Mall Executive Summary Blue Sky Shopping Mall is a large shopping mall in a thriving business center in Myaynigone. However, it is in a bad shape and its growth is declining. Several factors, such as the lack of vision and mission and long-term plan, unsuitable organizational structure, lack of target market and market strategies and the high turnover rate affect the growth of the Shopping Mall. We will write a custom essay sample on Bluesky Shopping Mall or any similar topic only for you Order Now This report sets out a plan and recommendations to reinvent a new invigorating image of the Shopping Mall. Based on a situational analysis, it draws up an organizational structure best suited for the Mall. The organization structure explains the type of management needed, the importance of strong and visionary leadership, some marketing strategies and marketing mixes. Moreover, this report gives recommendation for some aspects of human resource management. It seeks to revitalize the Shopping Mall and make it a profitable business, serving the needs of the customers best. Introduction In the beginning of the year 2013, our Chairman Dr. Patrick Hong made an acquisition of Blue Sky Shopping Mall. The Shopping mall is located in No. 7, Bargaya Road, Myaynigone, Sanchaung, Yangon. The location of the Shopping Mall is very strategic in many aspects. The area has a thriving business environment with Dagon Center I and II, Gamonepwint, City Mart, and some other fashion shops, restaurants, Car Accessories Shop and Car Show Room. The Shopping Mall is a nine-storey building with a car park next to it. The Shopping Mall has eight sectors, starting with store-room at the basement, Food Court, Department Store, Clothing, Sports, Cosmetics, Appliances, Housing Accessories, and Recreation (play stations, playground for children and cinemas) on the ninth floor. I. Business Administration 1. 1. Long-term Business Plan Situational Analysis Blue Sky Shopping Mall was established in January 2010. The newly founded Shopping Mall initially enjoyed considerable reputation and generated much profit. However, now it is not doing very well. The situational analysis below looks into some positive facts as well as some of the main causes of decline. A. Internal Factors: Strength and Weakness a. Strengths i. There are some experienced and skilled employees with potentials for becoming leaders. ii. The majorities of employees are young, hardworking and eager to learn to become more competent in their jobs. ii. As each sector (e. g food/clothing) occupies a floor, the interior organization of the Shopping Mall is simple and easy for shoppers to search for items they need and easy to manage. iv. The quality of the retailed products is as good as those from Dagon Center I and II and Gamonepwint. b. Weakness Organizational structure i. The organizational structure takes a centralization app roach with all the decisions made by CEO. This has a heavy negative impact on the whole operation of the Mall. With too many matters at the hand of the CEO alone and decisions could not be made in time and problems pile up. i. There is no delegation of power given to supervisors of each sector. They have to wait for the decisions of CEO. The problems in each department became graver and solutions and directions became long overdue. This greatly hampers the efficient running of the Shopping Mall. iii. Having too many matters in hand, the CEO could not establish good relationship with the staff. He could only inspect each sector in rare occasions. Some employees take advantage of his absence and shun their responsibilities. This causes much quarrelling among staff. And as the number of problems increase the CEO becomes stressful and authoritative and could not trust his subordinates. iv. The few numbers of security personnel at the entrance of the Mall cannot cope with the long line of people pouring into the Mall. As a result, people become frustrated with queuing up and gradually turn away from the Mall. v. There is no clear job description given to supervisors, the staff in each department become confused. The direct effect of this disorientation is apparent in maintenance such as cleaning, replacing expired products, mistaken price label and shortage of stocks. vi. The cashiers are not well-trained. They take a long time to serve the customers. This causes unnecessary long queue at the payment counter making the customers feel stressed and sometimes quarrel among themselves. vii. The lack of clear break time schedule among the cashiers adds another problem to the long queue at the payment counter. viii. The staffs at the customer information are not well trained. The consequence is they cannot give necessary and satisfactory answers or directions effectively to the customers. Their discourteous manner causes great unease and unpleasantness to the customers. ix. The staffing of â€Å"general inspectors† is absent. These are people who go around to make sure that everything in a sector is running well. When there is a need in a sector there is no one to remind or report to the supervisors. Consequently, things do not get replaced or repaired soon enough. x. The food court has few drinks and items on the menu and the waiters and waitresses are not trained. Marketing i. One of the greatest weaknesses of the Shopping Mall is that it has no clearly defined target market. ii. In effect, there is no proper marketing plan. iii. No promotion such as new product launch, seasonal sale events, and special items sales and so on are carried out. v. Due to the centralization approach to management with nearly all the responsibilities resting on CEO, he could not give time to do market Survey. Human resource management i. The recognition and rewarding of certain workers in terms of their achievement is not carried out consistently. It is done casually and arbitrarily and thus leadership failed to encourage ha rd work and celebrate achievements. ii. The lack of continual capacity building of the staff, as was seen with the cashiers and the staff in customer information sector, has severe negative effects on the growing numbers and demand of customers. ii. The pay and benefits of the workers are not clearly designed, thus lack incentive for workers. iv. The morale of the staff begins to decline. This affects the spirit of service given to customers. All the mentioned weaknesses create a high turnover rate. B. External Factors: Opportunities and Threats Opportunities v. â€Å"Let’s go shopping. † is a popular phrase among people these days. When they say that they usually mean going to a shopping mall. Even when not buying, people like to just stroll in the Shopping Mall to get air-condition, or a meet their friends in it. It is a good rendezvous because it is clean; it is easy to reach by public transport; it offers affordable prices and thus makes it very convenient. In other words, it is a very good place to attract people, especially the young, to spend money. vi. As more and more young people meet their friends or watch movies at shopping malls, the social attitude is somehow synonymous with having money to spend. The young could be very reliable and profitable target customers. If the Mall is designed to cater to them in terms of ambience, products, prices and services they would flock to the Shopping Mall. ii. Given a good pay and good work environment, many young people can be recruited to contribute to the rapid attainment of the objectives of the Shopping Mall. Young people are energetic and creative. If only their potentials were channeled into the right direction, they could make up a very strong and efficient workforce. viii. The location of the Mall is very strategic. It is located in a t hriving business area. The population around the area is quite dense. There are many schools, training and language centers in the areas. Young people make up the bulk of the population. Many forms of public transportation reach the area. The car park is a major asset to the Mall. All these conditions offer a tremendous opportunity for the Mall to be very successful. Threats i. The main rivals near Blue Sky Shopping, Dagon Center and Gamonepwint and City Mart are doing very well. They could take all customers and gain their loyalty. ii. Recently there has been heavy traffic congestion near Myaynigone area. This could turn away potential customers to other less congested shopping malls. Long-term Business Plan Vision To be a leading Shopping Mall creating space and value for the young. Mission Through young, energetic, and creative workforce, we know the needs of customers and fulfill them with delivering the latest quality products at workable price, at convenient location and provide a perfect rendezvous and best customer services. Objectives 1. Strategic objectives i. To reinvent a new image of the Shopping Mall with a new name and a new organizational structure in 6 months ii. To attain 10% market share within a year and increase it yearly 2. Tactical objectives i. To put in place the new management system ii. To build workers capacity for skills and services ii. To give space for young leaders with their creative ideas and promotion to win loyalty of young people 3. Operational objectives i. Run the new management system effectively in three month. ii. Conduct human capacity building for supervisors, managers in 3 months. iii. Expend capacity building to the rest of the stuff in a year. iv. Elect at least 30 new potential leaders in a year 1. 2. Organizational Structure CEO Finance manager| | Marketing manager| | Human Resource manager| | General Manager| | Purchase manager| | Security manager| | | | | | | | | | | | Senior accountants| | Sale promotion manager| | HR executives| | Engineers| | Supervisors| | Supervisors| | | | | | | | | | | | Junior accounts| | event manager| | supervisors| | Supervisors| | Sector heads| | Staff| | | | | | | | | | | | Auditors| | Advertisement team| | Trainers| | sector heads| | staff| | | | | | | | | | | | | | Cashiers| | Public relation team| | staff| | staff| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Sector head| | sector head| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | staff| | staff| | | | | | | | | Since all the sectors operate almost daily routine retailing, the organization is re-structured as seen in the chart above. Clear job description and special authority are given to sector heads to make key decision as they are more familiar with every day market and situation. They will work closely with the CEO in attaining the Shopping Mall goals and sales targets. In this sense, decentralization is more conducive to the Mall success and fit more into the management system. The chain of command, which means, â€Å"an unbroken line of authority that links all individuals in the organization and specifies who reports to whom†, can be seen from the organizational structure. In a Shopping Mall setting, daily retailing of a wide range of products need to have a very strong and clear scalar principle, which clearly defines authority and responsibilities. Span of Management Chief Cashier Staff 1 Staff 2 Staff 3 Staff 4 Chief Standby Staff 1 Staff 2 Staff 3 Staff 4 Replace inspector Staff 1 Staff 2 Staff 3 Staff 4 Customer service Staff 1 Staff 2 Staff 3 Staff 4 Sector Head Since the business is retail and each floor containing one sector, it is easier to organize the span of change. Each sector has a sector head with standby inspectors, cashiers head, replacing head immediately under him/her who would supervise about ten staff. In diagram one sector would look like this. 1. 3. Leadership 1. 3 The Importance of leadership in a rapidly changing world The importance of a leader in an organization can be compared to the captain of a ship. The captain not only directs the ship where to go, he/she encourages the crew member, supervise the crew to serve the people on board, and look forward to the danger, take the route that would give maximum satisfaction during their ride on the ship. Without a leader with excellent management and interpersonal skill as well as with a clear vision toward the future, the crew will be disoriented, the ship would not get to its destination, the journey would be unpleasant, and the ship might even sink amidst the prevalent dangers in the sea. Due to the weakness of leadership in many areas as mentioned in situation analysis, the Blue Sky Shopping Mall got into a bad shape and is not reaping profit. In this age of rapid change in technological advances in telecommunication, social transformation, mass media culture and globalization, leadership must constantly adapt to these changes. If leadership in an organization could not keep abreast with the paces of these changes, that organization will certainly fall behind. The case of Blue Sky Shopping Mall is an example of the failure of leadership to respond to changes. The number of customers increased in the first years; however few security personnel could not cope with increasing numbers. As the number increased it demanded better and efficient services. In this respect also the CEO failed to respond. Moreover, CEO could not respond rapidly to a number of problems, which were actually, opportunities; especially he failed to look into the market demand of the young. As more and more people are becoming more aware health and environment issues the retailed products should co-respond to these shifts of expectation. In terms of ethical issues, the low wages of the staff in proportion to the hours of work, the Blue Sky earn a bad image in the public’s eye. When the CEO became too distant from the staff, and failed to share the values and views of the customers and the employee, the dynamic of the organization was very much weakened. All these shortcomings pointed out that leaders should constantly cooperate in the organization they lead. In other words, leadership is the lifeblood of an organization. . 4 Organizational Control As seen in the organizational structure chart, individuals at the top management will work closely with all the employees. Since the organization will continue to use existing employees only serving more or less the same products, the organization control focus will be on concurrent control and feedback control only. II . Marketing Marketing Strategies A. Segmentation Considering the opportunities in situational analysis, the strategic location of Blue Sky in an area which is populated by young people and people of white color jobs, we segment our market in the following categories. . Location 2. Age group 3. Income B. Targeting Since Shopping Mall gives retailing services, the most profitable portion of customers would be young adult, especially women, given the fact that the working population of young adults in Yangon is female aged between 16-35. Another target is families. Not only newly-wed but also families with children can be assumed to have a certain regular income. They make up a significant portion of population compared to people age-group below 18 and above 60. Still another target within the income group is people with middle income. They have considerable income to spend. Therefore, the Shopping mall should create value for this class of people. C. Positioning Shopping Mall can meet the needs of the market tremendously since it retails a wide range of products. Therefore, the positioning becomes very important. According to the text book, positioning means a product should have a clear, distinctive, and desirable place in the market (Pre-MBA marketing Principle, p 24). Since Shopping Mall retails many kinds of products to different target of customers, it is very crucial to consider and plan positioning with great care and in great detail. To have a clear positioning, the Mall should stock all the relevant products to meet, at the maximum satisfaction, the needs of the targeted groups. Shortage of stocks or lack of varieties of certain products could affect customers’ expectation and could lose their loyalty. Thus, the supervisor of each sector should immerse themselves into the market and constantly try to fulfill the market needs. It could use the slogan â€Å"We have what you need†. Another element of positioning is the product must be distinctive. In this sense, the Shopping Mall should cater to the targeted customers. The Shopping Mall should earn a reputation that fulfils the specific needs of the young adults, the middle-incomer, and the families. For instance, for the female young adults, to get the latest fashion and cosmetics, they should associate the Shopping Mall with their needs. Or when they want to meet their friends, they should automatically choose â€Å"Blue Sky Shopping Mall†, ‘because that’s the best place young people hang out. ’ Excellent service should be another distinctive feature of Blue Sky Shopping Mall. The last element of positioning is desirable. What could be more desirable for customers’ value than low price? Since the target group is the middle income group, the low price positioning would appeal and meet group’s need. In summary the marketing strategies can be shown in table as follows. Segmentation| Targeting| Positioning| location| Yangon, especially Myaynigone and Hledan| Clear place – â€Å"We have what you need. †| Age-group| Young adults and adults| Distinctive place – young and lively ambience| Income| Middle income group| Desirable – affordable to low price| Marketing Mix a. Product/customer solution Retailing service is considered as a product. In fact, it creates the best value or solution for customers’ needs and problems. b. Price/customer cost As mentioned in marketing positioning, we consider affordable to low price to be attractive to our targeted customers. c. Place/convenience Blue Sky Shopping Mall. A convenient place where all the public transport can reach, an ambience especially designed for and cater to the young, a place of great value to customers where their needs are fulfilled with the best service. d. Promotion/two-way communication In line with our objectives and target customer needs, promotions in the form of fashion shows, movies festivals, today special food, and some other creatively appealing to the young populace should be carried out. Frequent sales could promote the interest of the customers. III. Human Resource Management To respond to the high turnover rate, besides installing a new organizational structure, the following issues should be addressed adequately. The Human Resource Team should tackle the following areas: 1. Job, role, competency and skills analysis The first step in planning a workforce to fit into a new organizational structure, a comprehensive job, role, competency and skills analysis of the existing resources should be carried out in order to allot them in the areas they are best at. That way the organization will move smoother and faster to achieve its goal. 2. Training and Development After the analysis of job, role, competency and skills, a careful plan should be drawn up to train and develop the employers beginning with the most critical teams such as section heads, security personnel, cashiers and customer information services. 3. Creating a clear work schedule Part of the problem we saw in situation analysis was the lack of clear schedule, which causes much confusion and even quarrels among the workers. A schedule with reasonable amount of rest and clear timetable for lunch shift should remedy the chaos. . Pay, benefit and reward system As an incentive to promote high performance, reasonable pay according to competency and skill should be clearly made known to employees. Besides, benefits such as holidays, medical insurance, bonuses plan should be put in place and implement them consistently and transparently. Rewards for extraordinary performance as in sal es or customer relationship or taking up responsibility with good attitude should be promoted. This will not only encourage them to realize their potentials but also motivate the workforce to strive toward better performance. 5. Opportunity for personal development Since the majority of the employees are young people, the management could pick from the large pool of talents to drive forward the organization with momentum and efficiency. In this regard, potential workers should be handpicked and trained for specific task, within a framework. This is beneficial not only to the employees but also for the organization. 6. Warm and creative work environment enlivened by shared vision Most importantly, the employees are not just paid workers. They are human beings with feelings and emotions. And work has value for their lives. Thus work should give them meaning for their lives. To that end, the work environment should be warm and there should be space for their creativity as the worker population is young. If a vision of the Shopping Mall could be shared, it would facilitate the process. One important point is that unlike the top-down management, the people in higher position should show care, concern, and intimacy with all the employers. Only then, work environment could be warm and creative. Conclusion The business plan for Blue Sky Shopping Mall shows the overall plan of how to revitalize the Shopping Mall. The report points out areas of weakness where the Shopping Mall needs to tackle to improve its growth. The report believes that the recommendation gives a picture of what the Blue Sky Shopping Mall would look like after re-structuring the organization and imputing vision, mission, marketing plans and plans to reshape the workforce. There is a great chance that Blue Sky Shopping Mall can regain its former glory. Reference list: * MBA premaster course of business administration * http://www. capitaland. com/about-capitaland/our-mission * http://www. capitamallsasia. com/corporate/our_vision_mission. aspx How to cite Bluesky Shopping Mall, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Study Skills and Student Performance free essay sample

Study skills and academic performance among second-year medical students in problem-based learning Med Educ Online [serial online] 2006;11:23 Available from http://www. med-ed-online. org Study Skills and Academic Performance among Second-Year Medical Students in Problem-Based Learning Deborah A. Sleight, PhD and Brian E. Mavis, PhD Office of Medical Education Research and Development College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, USA Abstract Purpose: This research study highlights the relationship between study aid use and exam performance of second year medical students. It also discusses how students used study aids in preparing for PBL exams and whether students who used others’ study aids performed as well as students who created their own. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to second-year medical students after completion of their exam. The data from the questionnaire were linked to students’ examination scores and other academic indicators. Results: The study habits were more similar than different when compared by exam performance. A majority of students used study aids as a memory aid or for review, but students who performed in the top third of the class were less likely to use them at all. Pre-existing differences related to academic achievement and study strategies were found when students at the top, middle and bottom of exam performance were compared. Conclusions: A better understanding of the differences in study habits and study aid use in relation to examination performance can help in providing future students with appropriate academic support and advising. Students have always shared various study materials, but computers and networks have now made it easier than ever. We might think this is a good thing, right? But not necessarily. In February of 2004, one of our faculty members noticed that her PBL students were sharing study materials at a higher rate than in previous years. She also noticed that the students had a lower level of performance on the problem-based learning (PBL) exams as compared to previous students. She wondered if there might be some relationship between a perceived increase in students’ sharing study aids and performance on the exam. We looked for published research on the use of study aids and exam performance. Two studies by Gurung1, 2 that looked at undergraduates’ use of textbook aids, such as summary sections, found that use of such aids did not relate to exam performance. A further search led us to theories about time-on-task and concept mapping. Time-on-task is defined by Levin and Nolan as a measure of students’ time spent actively engaged in learning. In 1988, Jere Brophy demonstrated that increased time spent on learning activities yields increased learning, provided that the teacher was competent and that the learning activities were effectively designed and implemented. 4 Another theory that guided us was concept mapping. Concept mapping is a technique in which the learner links new knowledge to a framework of relevant concepts that the learner already knows. Ausubel5 maintained that this linking of new with existing knowledge was a key factor in successful learning and that it was the difference between meaningful learning and rote learning. Many researchers have studied the benefits of concept mapping and have determined some tangible outcomes: an improved ability to form conceptual relationships, improved clarity of reasoning and focus on key ideas, and an easier grasp of difficult or new concepts. 3, 6-9 Students who create their own study aids are spending time making them, whereas those who use others’ study aids are not. It may also be that the process of creating study aids helps the learner gain more meaningful knowledge through the process of synthesizing disparate pieces of information into new knowledge, as has been shown with notetaking. The related literature on notetaking and performance, as noted in the ERIC Digest on note taking,10 indicates a positive relationship between notetaking and retention. We wondered if students who used study aids made by others rather than making their own 1 Sleight DA, Mavis BE. Study skills and academic performance among second-year medical students in problem-based learning Med Educ Online [serial online] 2006;11:23 Available from http://www. med-ed-online. org might be missing out on the benefits of time-on-task and concept mapping. Three questions guided this exploratory study: (a) To what extent did students use study aids? (b) How did students use study aids to prepare for an exam? and (c) To what extent did study habits and study aid use relate to exam performance? Methods The context of our research was the MSU College of Human Medicine’s second-year PBL curriculum. The subjects were second-year medical students who had just completed their final examination in Metabolism, Endocrine and Reproductive (MER) content. The instrument we used was a written questionnaire that we created for this study. The questionnaire asked students about the following topics: (1) the information sources they used to study for their PBL exam in terms of time and usefulness, (2) attendance at lectures, (3) use of study aids that they created in terms of usefulness and how they were best used; (4) similar questions about students’ use of study aids made by others; and (5) students’ overall opinion about the efficacy of study aids. The survey included the following definition of â€Å"study aids† in order to provide a context for the questions. â€Å"Study aids are sets of organized, summarized information on a particular topic that help students learn by facilitating memorization and synthesis through organization and by reducing the amount of information to be learned. † Descriptions of specific types of study aids were provided: summaries of notes, concept maps, flash cards, practice test questions, and tables and charts. This study was approved by the university Internal Review Board. For analysis purposes, the sample was divided into thirds, based on the percentage total score for the content examination. This approach allowed for comparison of the use of study aids by the top, middle and bottom thirds of the class. Based on the distribution of final examination scores, the bottom third of the class had 29 students, the middle third 38 students and the top third 29 students. The study aid questionnaire data were linked to the results of a self-assessment of study skills that students completed during their orientation to medical school. The Learning and Study Skills Inventory11 (LASSI) is a 10-scale self-assessment of awareness about and use of learning and study strategies. The questionnaire focuses on thoughts, behaviors, attitudes and beliefs related to successful learning that can be altered through educational interventions. The results of our questionnaire on students’ use of study aids were also linked to the students’ MCAT scores to determine if examination performance was associated with pre-existing differences in problem-solving skills and knowledge. Results A total of 99 students (95%) completed the questionnaire. Three respondents did not include their student number on the questionnaire, so their responses could not be linked to the final examination scores or other data sources. Thus Table 1 summarizes the data for 99 students, and Tables 2 and 3 summarize the data for 96 students. Information Sources and Study Time Ninety percent of the top students reported attending all or most of the lectures, compared to 76% of students in the middle third and 80% of students in the bottom third; these differences were not statistically significant. Overall, students reported studying an average of 84 hours (median=60 hours) in preparation for their examination; total study hours were consistent across the bottom, middle and top thirds of the class. Total study time was unrelated to examination performance (r=-. 13, p=. 35). The course textbook (mean=36. 9 hours) and personal lecture notes (mean=32. 8 hours) were the most used information sources for studying. Other information sources used included other textbooks (mean=12. 3 hours), notes from classmates (mean=6. 8 hours), PBL group meeting notes (mean=1. hours) and hand-me-down notes from prior years (mean=0. 9 hours). The only information source to vary by examination performance was notes from classmates (F=3. 19, p=. 05): the mean for students in the top third of the class was 2. 9 hours compared to 9. 4 and 9. 1 hours for students in the middle and bottom thirds of the class. The hours of use of hand-me-down notes was significantly negatively correlated with examination p erformance (r=-. 51, p=. 003). Study Aid Use Students were asked about their use of study aids in preparing for their examination. The most frequently used study aids were charts and tables made by others (80%), self-made summaries of notes (77%), summaries of classmates’ notes (63%) and self-made concept maps/graphic overviews (55%). Only 66% of top students used their class note summaries to prepare for the examination compared to 89% of students in the middle third and 84% of students in the bottom third (? 2=5. 61, p=. 061). The use of charts and tables made by others was 2 Sleight DA, Mavis BE. Study skills and academic performance among second-year medical students in problem-based learning Med Educ Online [serial online] 2006;11:23 Available from http://www. med-ed-online. org Table 1: Self-Reported Study Aid Use for Examination Preparation The mean MCAT scores of Study Aids Made Study Aids Made the top cohort by Self by Others were greater than N % N % those of the botSummaries of Notes 75 77% 62 63% tom cohort; these differences were Concept Map or Other Graphic Overview 54 55% 36 37% statistically sigTables or Charts 48 49% 78 80% nificant for the Flash Cards 26 27% 14 15% physical science Practice Test Questions 12 13% 31 32% (F=3. 3, p=. 05) and biological scifound to vary by examination performance (? 2=10. 86, ence (F=3. 43, p=. 04) scores suggesting preexisting differp=. 004); 59% of top students reported their use compared ences in science knowledge and problem solving skills. to 86% of students in the middle third and 92% of stuThere were no significant correlations between MCAT dents in the bottom third. Students in the top third of the scores and the report ed study hours for each information class also were less likely to use self-made concept maps source. With regard to study aid use, MCAT Physical Sciand other graphic overviews (? 2=6. 83, p=. 033): 38% for ence was negatively associated with the use of flash cards top students compared to 61% of middle students and produced by others (r=-. 23, p=. 03); both MCAT Physical 72% of bottom students. Similarly, top students were Science (r=-. 21, p=. 05) and MCAT Biological Science less likely (18%) than middle (43%) and bottom (52%) (r=-. 26, p=. 01) were negatively associated with the use students to use concept maps made by others (? 2=7. 35, of practice test items made by others. Prior Performance To provide a context for the identified differences in study aid use by examination performance cohort, MCAT scores for each cohort were examined. mance, are shown in Table 3. Significant differences among the three cohorts were found for three LASSI scores. The bottom cohort scored lower than the middle and top cohorts in motivation and discipline.